Phosphatidyl choline PC is an important type of phospholipid and a major structural component of cell membranes, where it provides integrity and structure to the all-important membranes and regulates their fluidity. PC also provides structure to circulating lipoproteins and is essential for lipid transport and metabolism.
The clinical applications of PC center on its role in hepatic detoxification and protection, and through its role in providing choline in the body for lipid metabolism, liver function, homocysteine metabolism, cell signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and methylation reactions.
In the liver, PC is essential for the distribution of fat and cholesterol into extrahepatic tissues. It does this by packaging fat and cholesterol into very low density lipoprotein VLDL particles and secreting them from the liver. Inadequate PC and choline results in impaired VLDL secretion leading to an accumulation of fat and cholesterol in the liver.
This accumulation of lipids triggers a cascade of reactions, including mitochondrial dysfunction, generation of reactive oxygen species ROSlipid peroxidation, DNA damage, inflammation, apoptosis and finally liver damage and disease. PC can provide liver and detoxification support in a number of ways with human and animal research showing PC to have the following beneficial effects on liver health:. Researchers have also combined PC with silybin, an active constituent of Silybum marianum milk thistle finding the combination to improve liver enzymes, liver histology, and insulin resistance, while also protecting gastric and liver cells from oxidative stress.
In addition to providing structural support and regulating membrane fluidity, PC also acts as a precursor for intracellular messenger molecules that are central to cell signaling and thereby influence cell function. PC provides a source of choline which can be oxidized into betaine, an important metabolite used as a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
In this study, PC administration was found to alleviate obesity-related complications of a high fat diet such as body weight gain, lipid accumulation and hyperlipidemia — all risk factors for cardiovascular disease — results that can hopefully be replicated in human clinical trials. Choline, provided through PC, is essential for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine,[ 1 ] which is involved in muscle control, circadian rhythm, memory, and many other neuronal functions.
Accumulating evidence has found a link between PC levels and cognitive function, with low plasma PC levels highly predictive of cognitive decline and age-related membrane degeneration. Supplemental PC is most commonly derived from soy or sunflower lecithin. PC is synthesized in the body from dietary choline via the CDP-choline pathway or through the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, another phospholipid.
Phosphatidylcholine and Detoxification
Its main benefit in detoxification stems from its critical role as a building block of liver cell membranes, which are highly vulnerable to damage from alcohol, pharmaceutical medications, pollutants, viruses and other toxic influences. PC is highly bioavailable, and through its action as an emulsifier, may enhance the bioavailability of other nutrients that are supplemented alongside it.
PC also appears to be a safe supplement, with very few adverse effects reported in clinical trials, which is particularly important for patients who require safe and effective detoxification and liver support. Higdon J. Viewed 27 Oct EFSA Journal ;9 4 Kidd P, Head K. Altern Med Rev ;10 3 Hepatoprotective effect of phosphatidylcholine against carbon tetrachloride liver damage in mice.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 2 Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.Ir yo form present tense
Free Radic Biol Med ;52 9 Silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex protects human gastric and liver cells from oxidative stress. In Vivo ;29 5 Gastroenterological Society of Australia. The economic cost and health burden of liver disease in Australia, Viewed 1 Nov Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men.
Am J Clin Nutr ;82 1 Beneficial effects of phosphatidylcholine on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver in mice. Life Sci ; 1 Inferior prefrontal cortex mediates the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in healthy, older adults. Front Aging Neurosci ;Phosphatidyl choline PC is an important type of phospholipid and a major structural component of cell membranes, where it provides integrity and structure to the all-important membranes and regulates their fluidity.
PC also provides structure to circulating lipoproteins and is essential for lipid transport and metabolism. The clinical applications of PC centre on its role in hepatic detoxification and protection, and through its role in providing choline in the body for lipid metabolism, liver function, homocysteine metabolism, cell signalling, neurotransmitter synthesis and methylation reactions.330d fuel pump upgrade
In the liver, PC is essential for the distribution of fat and cholesterol into extrahepatic tissues. It does this by packaging fat and cholesterol into very low density lipoprotein VLDL particles and secreting them from the liver. Inadequate PC and choline results in impaired VLDL secretion leading to an accumulation of fat and cholesterol in the liver. This accumulation of lipids triggers a cascade of reactions, including mitochondrial dysfunction, generation of reactive oxygen species ROSlipid peroxidation, DNA damage, inflammation, apoptosis and finally liver damage and disease.
PC can provide liver and detoxification support in a number of ways with human and animal research showing PC to have the following beneficial effects on liver health:. With over six million Australians affected by liver disease, including the increasingly common NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ,[ 8 ] PC can provide practitioners with an effective addition to complement their current liver and detoxification protocols. In addition to providing structural support and regulating membrane fluidity, PC also acts as a precursor for intracellular messenger molecules that are central to cell signalling and thereby influence cell function.
The beneficial effects of PC on damaged liver tissue are probably due largely to the replacement of cell membrane mass, which occurs when adequate levels of PC are available for incorporation into the cell membranes. An interesting application for PC supplementation may be for the maintenance of cardiovascular health due to its effect on lipid transport and metabolism, and by providing a source of methyl groups for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine.
PC provides a source of choline which can be oxidised into betaine, an important metabolite used as a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. PC may reduce other cardiovascular risk factors according to a recent animal study. In this study, PC administration was found to alleviate obesity-related complications of a high fat diet such as body weight gain, lipid accumulation and hyperlipidaemia — all risk factors for cardiovascular disease — results that can hopefully be replicated in human clinical trials.
Another important area where PC may prove of value is the nervous system and its effect on cognitive function. Choline, provided through PC, is essential for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine,[ 1 ] which is involved in muscle control, circadian rhythm, memory, and many other neuronal functions. Accumulating evidence has found a link between PC levels and cognitive function, with low plasma PC levels highly predictive of cognitive decline and age-related membrane degeneration.
PC may be endogenously produced or obtained through the diet. Supplemental PC is most commonly derived from soy or sunflower lecithin. PC is synthesised in the body from dietary choline via the CDP-choline pathway or through the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, another phospholipid.Dosbox tutorial
The best dietary sources of PC include animal products such as eggs, liver, fish, beef, chicken, and pork, while wheat germ, soy beans, peanuts, peas, broccoli and spinach also provide vegetarian sources. With its ability to repair and protect liver cells, PC is a smart choice for incorporating into a detoxification program.
PC is highly bioavailable, and through its action as an emulsifier, may enhance the bioavailability of other nutrients that are supplemented alongside it. PC also appears to be a safe supplement, with very few adverse effects reported in clinical trials, which is particularly important for patients who require safe and effective detoxification and liver support. A minimum daily dose of mg of PC, easily achieved via supplementation, has been recommended in the literature to improve liver function and enhance its recovery.
The information provided on FX Medicine is for educational and informational purposes only. The information provided on this site is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional advice or care. Please seek the advice of a qualified health care professional in the event something you have read here raises questions or concerns regarding your health. Skip to main content. What is phosphatidyl choline? PC can provide liver and detoxification support in a number of ways with human and animal research showing PC to have the following beneficial effects on liver health: reduces hepatic inflammation reduces liver enzymes associated with liver damage protects against chemical toxins and pharmaceutical adverse effects reduces fat accumulation in the liver reduces reactive oxygen species improves hepatic injury and fibrosis improves the structure and function of liver tissue improves parameters of hepatitis B and C.
Including phosphatidyl choline in a detox With its ability to repair and protect liver cells, PC is a smart choice for incorporating into a detoxification program. Viewed 27 Oct Altern Med Rev ;7 2 EFSA Journal ;9 4 Altern Med Rev ;10 3 Hepatoprotective effect of phosphatidylcholine against carbon tetrachloride liver damage in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 2 Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.Phosphatidylcholine, or PC for short, is an important phospholipid in the body.
A phospholipid simply describes a molecule with a head containing phosphorus and two fatty tails. The membrane acts as a barrier around the exterior, separating and protecting the contents of the cell from the external environment.
It also acts as a gatekeeper making sure that the cell receives the nutrients it needs to thrive, while keeping all the bad stuff, such as toxins, out. Another key function of membranes is communicating messages.
Embedded in the cell membranes are receptors which are activated or blocked by molecules which bind to them.
When a receptor is activated, it begins to carry out a chain of reactions that send a message to the interior of the cell. This message leads to action by the cell, such as making a new protein or enhancing energy production. Mitochondria in our cells and are responsible for the final steps of converting the macronutrients we eat — carbohydrates, fats and protein - into energy in the form of ATP, the common currency of energy our cells use.
This final step of energy production, called oxidative phosphorylation, occurs in the mitochondria between its inner and outer membranes. These two membranes are phospholipid bilayers where a series of reactions carried out by the electron transport chain for the ultimate purpose of making energy for the entire cell.
Surprising Benefits of Phosphatidyl Choline
Hydrogen ions are pumped out generating a positive charge electrical potential between the two membranes. When the hydrogen ion is allowed to re-enter the mitochondria, the energy generated is captured in the form of ATP. To learn more about mitochondria, the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain, see my recent article here.
Now, here is the phosphatidylcholine connection: PC is the main component of the cell and mitochondrial membrane structure. Mitochondrial and cell membranes are all made up of the same basic components: phospholipids.
Importantly, the inner and outer membranes need to be intact, but they are constantly being bombarded and damaged by the generation of free radicals like superoxide, an oxygen with an unpaired electron, generated by the energy producing process itself.
This causes more inefficiency, more exhaust and more damage creating a vicious cycle. How does the mitochondria repair and maintain its membrane? Phospholipids, and phosphatidylcholine specifically, are key. Phospolipids are unique molecules.
When they are exposed to an aqueous environment like the extracellular space outside of the cellphospholipids immediately coalesce into a sphere much like an oil and vinegar mixture, but at a microscopic level. Other phospholipids, such as phosphatidylethanolamine PEphosphatidylserine PSand phosphatidylinositol PI join forces with PC to support and complete the cell and mitochondrial membranes, offering strength, support and fluidity.
This seemingly simple science is fascinating to me, especially as a functional medicine doctor, interested in the delivery of nutrients to the cells that need them. A liposome is an obvious choice for superior absorbability and bioavailability of supplemental nutrients because a liposome mimics the cell membrane structure and is easily recognized by the body.Intermittent fasting and uti
Let me explain a little more. The contents trapped in the interior of the liposome — such as glutathionevitamin Cvitamin B Complexminerals or phytonutrients like curcumin - are protected from the external environment.
As the liposomes pass through the digestive tract, the contents are protected against destruction by stomach acid and digestive enzymes.
Source 12. Liposomes containing vitamin CglutathioneB vitamins and curcumin increase the absorption poorly absorbed molecules. Source 23 The liposomes themselves are also very nutritious, delivering PC complex as the building blocks for restoring and repair cell and mitochondrial membranes and choline to support brain health, methylation and cellular function. Phosphatidylcholine PC is the main source of choline in our bodies. While not exactly a vitamin, per se, choline is an essential nutrient.
The human body can produce choline from scratch in small amounts, but it is unable to make enough to supply the body with all the choline it needs to function properly.Phospholipids have a common biochemical structure: a glycerol backbone the same stuff used to make soap with two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and one extra molecule attached in this case choline. Every cell in your body has a membrane, and these membranes are responsible for letting in nutrients and oxygen, receiving signals from the rest of the body via receptors, and purging metabolic waste products.
But your cell membranes are made from whatever fats are available for your body to use. This is because choline is the building block for acetylcholine, the main neurotransmitter associated with memory formation. It involves adding a methyl group -CH 3 to various kinds of hormones, neurotransmitters, or toxins to render them water soluble.
So do phenols like salicylic acid—aspirin, cannabinoids, estradiol, and BPA and quite a few other chemicals. Therefore, if the methylation cycle is compromised if you have MTHFR mutationshigh homocysteine or methylmalonic acidconsider not just B12 methylcobalamin and folate 5-MTHFbut consider testing choline levels as well.
It is also possible to find sunflower-derived phosphatidylcholine also called lecithin. Doses for cellular healing can go all the way up to 9 grams! Phosphatidylcholine and Detoxification.
Previous Next. View Larger Image. But this amazing phospholipid does so much more than that. How Do You Consume Phosphatidylcholine? By Dr. About the Author: Dr. Lauren Deville is board-certified to practice medicine in the State of Arizona. She also writes fiction under a pen name in her spare time. Visit her author website at www. Related Posts. February 12th, February 5th, Lacking a diet high in liver patee, kidney, and other organ meats, most modern westerners do not consume adequate quantities of choline.
This vital nutrient is the precursor for acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter responsible for things like learning, memory, and a host of others. One common source of choline is through a phospholipid molecule called phosphatidylcholine.
As the name suggests, this is a phospholipid fatty acid group attached to a choline molecule and the combination is found throughout the body, but often supplemented with soy lecithin. There are a range of purported phosphatidylcholine benefits, though they are primarily known for adding choline within the brain for acetylcholine production, which is a contested claim .
The benefits of phosphatidylcholine are primarily related to choline itself. Our ancestors used to eat large amounts of meat and specifically organ meats such as liver, kidney, lungs etc.
The current animal protein is primarily from muscle tissue, which has little of the choline we used to consume. By using any kind of choline source, there are some benefits especially in those who are deficient. This is one of the reasons why regulatory agencies have recommended daily intakes for humans.10 FOODS FOR DETOX \u0026 liver support
The evidence on phosphatidylcholine especially for cognition and general health is relatively scarce. In fact, as we will discuss in the next section, there may be side effects associated with phosphatidylcholine in the long-term that are unhealthy. There are a few main side effects of phosphatidylcholine or choline as a whole. According to a systematic review in the journal of Nutrition Reviews suggested that throughout all the research there is scant evidence to suggest any cognitive benefits.
In fact, there are potential risks that must be further explored . Other studies have shown that the side effects of phosphatidylcholine include increased triglycerides, but again the evidence is not highly available or convincing .
It is possible to buy phosphatidylcholine supplements online, but we would not recommend doing so. Even if you buy phosphatidylcholine, the benefits are not well-studied, and it is not a great source of choline either way.
We would actually recommend against it. Instead, if you are searching for a source of choline, we would recommended CDP choline or this alpha GPC, which are both higher quality choline sources that can help you to improve cognition with actual scientific evidence. Nootropedia is meant to be a resource for individuals researching drugs and supplements that are good for brain health, otherwise known as nootropics, and thus we are the Nootropics Encyclopedia. Because of our in-depth coverage of this topic, our community has requested that we cover other brain health topics and "lifehacks" so that has become the focus of Nootropedia.
Subscribe to get Updates. Phosphatidylcholine July 4, This post may contain affiliate links. Quick Navigation. Share Tweet Pin Share. Nootropedia Nootropedia is meant to be a resource for individuals researching drugs and supplements that are good for brain health, otherwise known as nootropics, and thus we are the Nootropics Encyclopedia. Related Posts.
Cognitive Enhancers. Adrafinil July 28, Peppermint Essential Oil June 27, Oxiracetam July 8, Does Black Coffee Break a Fast?Milk thistle, a member of the Asteraceae family of plants from which daisies and sunflowers belong to, has been used for over 2, years to treat gallbladder and liver problems.
It is the number-one herb a weed, actually used to detoxify the body, in particular a liver detox. The liver provides an incredibly important function in the human body. As the second-largest organ in the body, the liver is in many ways a workhorse because it performs many functions involving digestion, the immune system, the metabolic system, and how nutrients are stored in the body.
When fatty, rich foods or alcohol are consumed, the liver has to work harder than normal to filter the toxins. After decades of compensating for poor nutritional habits, chemicals in our food, and heavy metals in our main sources of water, the liver can become tired and over-exerted, and needs a good cleansing and detoxification to get it back to where it can operate at optimal levels.
A milk thistle liver detox is an ideal way to cleanse the liver.Dafont cursive font with heart
A milk thistle liver detox is quite simple to do and can be done without the help of a naturopathic doctor or health professional. The herb has been shown to be very safe when taken internally, and studies have reported no side effects when taken in large doses over a long period of time. A study published in the journal Molecular Carcinogenesis revealed that milk thistle could actually help the body detox from the effects of radiation.
This is a concern to some people, because radiation waves are found in cell phones, microwaves, and other common items, though study results on the matter are inconsistent and more research is needed.
A milk thistle liver flush will help get it back on track and remove the toxic buildup. Milk thistle liver detox dosages vary from person to person depending on weight and overall health, so the following numbers are meant as guidelines and can be adjusted. The most common amount administered for a milk thistle liver cleanse is anywhere from mg to mg, taken two to three times a day.
When shopping for milk thistle, look for a high content of silymarin the name of the group of plant compounds found in the plant. Some milk thistle formulations are combined with phosphatidylcholine complex; you can take a lower dose of these to mg, once or twice a day because the complex makes the milk thistle easier to absorb. A milk thistle liver detox is an important step in maintaining a properly functioning liver.
Over the years the liver gets bogged down by heavy metals, fatty foods, alcohol and chemicals, and becomes sluggish.Escocia busca habitantes 2020
Get it back in working order so it can function at optimal levels by detoxing your liver with a milk thistle flush. Some people might experience loose bowels for the first few days, but this will eventually pass. After the liver cleanse has been done, you can continue taking milk thistle, at lower levels, as a nutritional supplement every day to keep the liver healthy going forward. Narayanapillai, S. Disclaimer: The information contained herein is for information purposes only and is not to be construed as a diagnosis, treatment, preventive, or cure for any disease, disorder, or abnormal physical state, nor should it be considered a substitute for medical care from your doctor.
On any matter relating to your health or well-being—and prior to undertaking any health-related activity—consult an appropriate health professional. The opinions herein are exactly that, they are the opinions of the author. Doctors Health Press and its employees are not responsible for medically unsupervised activities that could be harmful to your health.Using statistical, experimental, and ethnographic methods Barbershops, Bibles, and B.
T offers a new perspective on the way public opinion and ideologies are formed at the grassroots level. The book makes an important contribution to our understanding of black politics by shifting the focus from the influence of national elites in opinion formation to the influence of local elites and people in daily interaction with each other.
Arguing that African Americans use community dialogue to jointly develop understandings of their collective political interests, Harris-Lacewell identifies four political ideologies that constitute the framework of contemporary black political thought: Black Nationalism, Black Feminism, Black Conservatism and Liberal Integrationism.
These ideologies, the book posits, help African Americans to understand persistent social and economic inequality, to identify the significance of race in that inequality, and to devise strategies for overcoming it. And listen this author has--to black college students talking about the Million Man March and welfare, to Southern, black Baptists discussing. If you want to stake above this, please contact us on 08000 565 265 from the UK or 1800 721 821 from Ireland.
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